Gallery

Flare

Solar flare is an explosion on the solar surface. Magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinematic energy of plasmas in a short time.

©NAOJ/JAXA

This is a huge flare which occurred in December of 2006. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm])

©NAOJ/JAXA

This is a solar flare erupted in a huge sunspot group which appeared in October of 2014. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm])

Dynamic jet eruption seen around a sunspot

Jets appearing in the movie are so tiny and rapidly changing that they are difficult to see via ground-based telescopes affected by atmospheric seeing. Hinode captured such phenomena very clearly.


©NAOJ/JAXA

Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm]



©NAOJ/JAXA

This morphing movie shows how the structure changes from the photosphere, the surface of the Sun (blue color), to the chromosphere (orange color) above it. In the chromosphere we can see active and dynamic phenomena that are completely different from the activity in the calm photosphere. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: G band [430 nm], calcium H line [396 nm])



©NAOJ/JAXA

Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm]

Prominence

Solar prominence is cool gas floating in the solar atmosphere. Prominence material is denser than surrounding coronal plasma, but it is sometimes suspended in the corona for a long time. Coronal magnetic fields could act like a hammock, supporting the prominence material.



© JAXA/NAOJ

Gas in the prominence moves up and down, showing the waves are propagating along magnetic field lines. It is thought that this wave may carry energy from the photosphere to the corona and that the energy heats the corona. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm])



©NAOJ/JAXA

Prominence plasma moves violently. Hinode showed that prominence is not still; it is a collection of fine scale structures churning vertically. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm])



©NAOJ/JAXA

We can see prominence erupting to interplanetary space. A flare occurs simultaneously at the bottom region of the eruption. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm])

Sunspot

Sunspot looks dark, because its temperature is lower than that of the surface of the Sun (photosphere). Strong magnetic fields of ~3,000 gauss exist in the sunspot (The strength of terrestrial magnetic field is ~0.3 gauss). Because this strong magnetic field hinders the transfer of heat generated at the center of the Sun to the surface, the temperature in the sunspot is lower than in the surrounding regions.

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©NAOJ/JAXA

All these images above are the same sunspot taken by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). Upper left is the photospheric image in the wavelength of the G band [430 nm]. Lower left image shows the line-of-sight magnetic field distribution (white: N poles, black: S poles). Upper right is the image of chromosphere seen in the calcium H line [396 nm].

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©NAOJ/JAXA

Bright, elongated structures that divide sunspot umbrae (the darkest parts in the spot centers) are called light bridges, which are important to understand the process of sunspot formation and disintegration. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: Continuum)

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©NAOJ/JAXA

This is a huge sunspot group which appeared in October of 2014. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: Continuum)

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©NAOJ/JAXA

This image shows the magnetic field distribution in the huge sunspot group in October 2014. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: iron line [630 nm])

X-ray full Sun

High temperature plasmas of more than 1 million Kelvin emit X-rays. Since coronal plasmas are hotter than 1 MK, we can see solar corona in X-ray wavelengths.



©NAOJ/JAXA

Brighter areas have hotter coronal plasmas. Those areas are usually located above the sunspots. The movie shows the rotation of the Sun in low speed filming. (Observed by X-Ray Telescope (XRT), wavelength: X-ray)

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©NAOJ/JAXA

We can see many bright loops. Sunspots are located at the root of these loops. The loops show magnetic lines of force since plasmas are forced to move along the magnetic lines of force. (Observed by X-Ray Telescope (XRT), wavelength: X-ray)

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©NAOJ/JAXA

Bright areas contain hot coronal plasmas. (Observed by X-Ray Telescope (XRT), wavelength: X-ray)

Spicule

Spicule is a small-scale jet-like eruption of chromospheric plasma, sticking into the corona.

16.gif©NAOJ/JAXA

Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm]

Granulation

Granulation is a grain-like pattern of plasma motions on the surface of the Sun (photosphere). This pattern is generated by the convection of photospheric gas excited by heat flux from below in the lower layers.

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©NAOJ/JAXA

Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: G band [430 nm]

Solar eclipse

Solar eclipse is a phenomenon that the moon blocks the sunshine, when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth.



©JAXA/NAOJ

This is a partial solar eclipse which Hinode captured on July 22, 2009. (Observed by X-Ray Telescope (XRT), wavelength: X-ray)


©NAOJ/JAXA

This is a total solar eclipse seen from Hinode on March 19, 2007. (Observed by X-Ray Telescope (XRT), wavelength: X-ray)

Planet Transit across the Solar Disk

The transit across the solar disk is the phenomenon that the inner planet Mercury or Venus passes directly between the Sun and the Earth.


©NAOJ/JAXA

This is the transit of Venus observed from the Hinode spacecraft on June 6, 2012. (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: calcium H line [396 nm])



©NAOJ/JAXA

This is the transit of Mercury on November 9, 2006 seen from Hinode . (Observed by Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), wavelength: G band [430 nm])

Regarding the use of images and movies on the page concerned, please visit the page here. Explicit credit of images and movies on this page shall be given to “NAOJ/JAXA” unless explicitly stated to the contrary.

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